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- Potassium - Calcium - Magnesium - Sodium
Potassium is found in grapes and wine and increases as the berries mature. Potassium is also found in certain chemical additions, such as potassium metabisulfite. Final concentrations in wine depend on addition rates of potassium containing compounds, as well as the amount of extraction from berries through pressing and maceration. Calcium is naturally found in grapes due to uptake from soil, and is used by grape vines as a nutrient. High concentrations of calcium can result in calcium tartrate instability. Magnesium is naturally found in grapes due to uptake from the soil, and is used by grape vines as a nutrient. Final concentrations depend upon initial berry composition. Sodium is found in grapes due to uptake from the soil and other environmental impacts. Sodium may also be contributed through the use of certain sodium containing chemical additions, including sodium bisulfite.